Chopping: a technique for noise and offset reduction

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[1] C.A. Gobet, "Spectral distribution of a sampled 1st-order lowpass filtered white noise", Electron. Lett., vol.45, no.1, pp.307-316, 1974.

[2] C. Enz, "Analysis of the low-frequency noise reduction by autozero technique", Electron. Lett., vol.20, pp. 959-960, Nov. 1984

[3] C. Enz, E. Vittoz, F.Krummenacher," A CMOS chopper amplifier", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-22, pp. 335-342, June 1987.

[4] C.Enz, "High precision CMOS micropower amplifiers", These no.802 (1989), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL.

[5] K.H. White, D.R. Lampe, F.C. Blaha and I.A. Mack, "Characterization of surface channel CCD image arrays at low light levels", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-9, pp. 1-14, Feb. 1974.

[6] R.W. Brodersen and S.P. Emmons, "Noise in burried channel charge-coupled devices", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-11, pp. 147-156, Feb. 1976.

[7] R.J.Kansy, "Response of a correlated double sampling circuit to 1/f noise", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-15, pp. 373-375, June 1980.

[8] H.M. Wey and W. Guggenbuhl, "Noise transfer characteristics of a correlated double sampling circuit", IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. CAS-33, pp.1028-1030, October 1986.

[9] A. Papoulis, "The Fourier integral and its applications", Mc Graw-Hill,1962

[10] M.A.T. Sanduleanu, B.Nauta and H.Wallinga, "Low-power low-voltage chopped transconductance amplifier for noise and offset reduction", Proceedings of the 23rd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, pp.204-207, October 1997.

[11] K.C. Hsieh et al., "A low-noise chopper-stabilized differential switched-capacitor filtering technique," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-18, pp. 708-715, Dec. 1981.

[12] C. Enz, E. Vittoz, F.Krummenacher," A CMOS chopper amplifier", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-23, pp. 750-758, June 1988.

[13] A. Bakker and J.H. Huijsing, "A CMOS chopper opamp with integrated low-pass filter", Proc. ESSCIRC’97, Southampton, UK, Sept.1997, pp. 200-203.

[14] Analog devices, Inc., Datasheet, OP-07, Ultra-low offset voltage operational amplifier.

[15] Harris Semiconductor, Inc., Datasheet, ICL-7650S, 2MHz, Supper Chopper-Stabilized Operational Amplifier, 1996.

[16] Linear Technology, Inc., Datasheet, LTC 1050, Precision chopper stabilized operational amplifier with internal capacitors.

[17] C. Menolfi and Q. Huang, "A CMOS instrumentation amplifier with 600nV Offset, 8.5nV/Ö Hz noise and 150dB CMRR", "IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, CICC ’98", Santa Clara, May 1998.

[18] C. Menolfi and Q. Huang, "A low-noise CMOS instrumentation amplifier for thermoelectric infrared detectors", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-32, no.7, pp. 968-976, July 1997.

[19] R.J. van de Plassche, "Dynamic element matching for high accuracy monolithic D/A converters", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.SC-11, no.7, pp.795-800, Dec. 1976.

[20] B. Nauta and G.Hoogzaad, "How to deal with substrate noise in analog CMOS circuits", European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, Budapest, September 1997.

[21] A. van Staveren, J. van Velzen, C.J.M. Verhoeven and A.H.M. van Roermund, "An integratable second-order compensated bandgap reference for 1V supply", Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, no.8, pp.69-81, 1995.

[22] M.Gunawan, "A curvature-corrected low-voltage bandgap reference", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, no.28, pp667-670, June 1993.

[23] B. Gilbert, S.F.Shu, "Switching Bandgap Voltage Reference", U.S. Patent 5,563,504, Oct. 1996

[24] M.Tuthill, "A switched current, switched capacitor temperature sensor in 0.6m CMOS", Proceedings of the 23rd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, pp.228-231, Southampton, October 1997.

[25] P.Gray and R.G. Meyer, "Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 0-471-59984-0.

[26] M.A.T. Sanduleanu, A.J.M. van Tuijl and R.F. Wassenaar, "Accurate low power bandgap voltage reference in 0.5mm CMOS technology", Electronic Letters, vol.34., no.10, pp.1025-1026, May 1998.

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