This introduction to discrete-signal analysis & design provides a step-by-step approach that allows electrical engineers to go beyond the traditional continuous-signal pencil and paper analysis and design.
Specifically designed for easy individual at-home study as well as for classroom learning, the book requires only undergraduate level mathematics for understanding. The style of the book is conversational, with occasional re-examination and reinforcement of especially important basic concepts; throughout, the author includes complete self-study examples using full-page Mathcad Worksheets.
The book includes a valuable, full-featured student version of Mathcad 14.0 which offers a sophisticated math tool for a wide range of applied mathematics capabilities. The software will remain useful long after readers have mastered the text.
William E. Sabin, MSEE, Life Member IEEE, has worked at a professional engineering level in the electronics industry for forty years in almost all areas of signal processing, including analog, discrete, and digital. He has coedited three books on the subject of radio systems and circuits and is the author of about forty technical articles in electronics journals.
1. Define the goals of the book.
2. Define discrete signals.
3. The advantages of discrete-signal analysis and design.
4. Describe the DFT and IDFT.
5. Discuss the Mathcad program.
6. Discuss MATLAB and less expensive approaches.
7. Discuss Multisim program from National Instruments Co.
8. Discuss the Mathtype program.
9. Mention LabVIEW.
10. Mention Search Engines.
11. Discuss the personal productivity software capability.
Chapter 1: First Principles
1. Sequence structure in time domain and frequency domain.
2. Two-sided time and frequency.
3. The discrete Fourier transform.
4. The inverse discrete Fourier transform.
5. Frequency and time scaling.
6. Number of samples needed.
7. Complex frequency domain sequences. The phasor concept.
8. Time x(n) vs frequency X(k).
Chapter 2: Sine, Cosine and Theta.
1. One-sided sequences.
2. Combinations of two-sided phasors
3. Time and spectrum transformations.
4. Transforming two-sided phasor sequences into one-sided sine, cosine, & Theta.
5. Example 2-1, nonlinear amplifier distortion and square law modulator.
6. Example 2-2, analysis of the ramp function.
Chapter 3: Spectral Leakage and Aliasing.
1. Spectral leakage. Non-integer values of time and frequency.
2. Scaling of frequency reduces leakage. Example 3-1.
3. Aliasing in the two-sided frequency domain.
4. Aliasing in the positive frequency domain.
5. Example 3-2. Analysis of frequency domain aliasing.
6. Time domain aliasing.
Chapter 4: Smoothing and Windowing.
1. Smoothing the rectangular window, without noise and with noise.
2. Smoothed sequences near the beginning and end.
3. Signal to noise ratio of a smoothed sequence.
4. Three-point smoothing and seven point smoothing.
5. Windowing in the time and frequency domains.
6. The rectangular window (review Ch. 3).
7. The Hamming Window.
8. The Hanning (Hann) Window.
9. Relative merits of the three windows.
10. Lobe amplitudes of the three types of windows.
11. Behavior of windows near k = 1 and 2.
12. Scaling the windows for improved frequency resolution.
Chapter 5: Multiplication and Convolution
1. Sequence multiplication.
2. Polynomial multiplication.
3. Discrete Convolution basic equation.
4. Relating convolution to polynomial multiplication.
5. The "fold and slide" concept.
6. Circular discrete convolution (try to avoid).
7. Sequence time and phase shift.
8. The DFT and IDFT of discrete convolution.
9. Fig 5-6. Compare convolution and multiplication.
Chapter 6: Probability and Correlation
1. Expected value of noiseless sequence.
2. Include some additive noise.
3. Envelope detection of noisy sequence.
4. Power of noiseless sequence.
5. Power of noisy sequence.
6. Sequence averaging.
7. Variance (AC component).
8. Gaussian (normal) distribution.
9. Cumulative distribution (CDF).
10. Autocorrelation of a sequence.
11. Cross correlation of two sequences.
14. Correlation coefficient.
Chapter 7: Power spectrum.
1. Finding the power spectrum using Eq 7-1.
2. Two-side phasor spectrum, one-side power spectrum.
3. Example 7-1. See Fig 7-2.
4. Random Gaussian noise spectrum.
5. Measuring power spectrum.
6. Spectrum analyzer example.
7. Wiener-Kintchine theorem.
8. System power transfer Eq 7-6.
9. Cross power spectrum.
10. Example of calculating phase noise.
Chapter 8: Hilbert Transform.
1. The perfect Hilbert transformer.
2. Example of a Hilbert transform of a square wave.
3. Illustrate smoothing of the Example.
4. Explanation of peaks in Hilbert of square wave.
5. Mathematics of the Hilbert transform.
6. The analytic signal.
7. Example of construction of analytic signal.
8. Single-sideband RF signals.
9. SSB design.
10. The basic all-pass network.
11. -90 degree cascaded phase shift audio network.
12. Why the -90 degree network is not equivalent to a Hilbert transformer.
13. Filter method SSB transmitter.
14. Phasing method SSB receiver.
15. Filter method SSB receiver.
Appendix A: Additional discrete-signal information
16. Discrete derivative.
17. State variable solutions.
18. Using the discrete derivative.
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