Engineering Design Newsletter from EGS - November Edition

EGS India Newsletter November 2007
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EGS India Newsletter October 2007
EGS India Newsletter
Volume 1 Issue II
Design Services FEA Services
SolidWorks CAD
Cosmos FEA

November 2007

Design engineering can be challenging and interesting when it comes to addressing durability issues.  More so, if the failure has already occurred and the onus is on the design department to provide a solution.

Though conventional wisdom prompts the design engineer to increase the section modulus to reduce extreme fibre stresses, sometimes, reducing section modulus may prove to be beneficial in overcoming a failure issue! Sounds puzzling?

Next comes an obvious question. How much more is the new design better in terms of life expectancy while addressing cost and efficiency?  Fatigue is going to be the theme of this edition of Newsletter from EGS India.  As always, we welcome your feedback for more improvement in content and layout.

Yours sincerely

What is Inside?
Finite Element Thought For The Day
Fatigue Considerations in Design
What's New in CosmosWorks 2008?
Did You Know?
Design Process Automation by Thermax
Innovation Day

"An idea t hat is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea."

- Buddha

Finite Element Thought For The Day
FE analysis results are only as good as the Problem definition, modelling strategy, loads and boundary conditions.  Saint-Venant's Principle states that the effect of a load or boundary condition are localized to the area of their application and their effects are far removed at distances considerably away.  Hence the object area of interest, while performing FEA, should not be influenced to ensure no violation of Saint-Venant's Principle.  This consideration is very vital while reviewing the results of an analysis and to ensure accurate simulations.  Next time you apply a constraint, check whether the FE model is under-, over- or exactly constrained. Think about it. Need Answers? Contact EGS India!!

Contact us For:

  • Product Design
  • Finite Element Analysis
  • Analysis to test correlation
  • Failure Elimination
  • New Product Development
  • Safety Certification
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • Value Engineering
  • GD&T Training
  • Training in FEA
  • SolidWorks CAD Software
  • Cosmos FEA Software
  • Vibration Problem

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Fatigue Considerations in Design

Fatigue is defined as a failure at a load much less than the design load. When a metallic specimen, such as steel, is subjected to a rotating bending fatigue test, if there is no evidence of failure after 1E07 cycles, it is considered to have infinite life for stated loading.  For softer metals such as Aluminium, the threshold is considered at 1E08 cycles. Though majority of designs can be subjected to uni-axial fatigue considerations, sometimes multi-axial fatigue calculations are important such as cases involving combinatorial loading involving bending and torsion.

Fatigue can be classified into high-cycle (elastic) and low-cycle (plastic) regimes.  FEA results can be used to compute fatigue life.  It has been found that such computations are accurate and help in Remaining Life Assessments for critical components.
Heat  Exchanger  Tube  Failure  and  FEA
Images show Cosmos FEA results vis-a-vis failure in a heat exchanger

Accuracy of Life Prediction calculations are dependent on understanding of failure modes, capturing mechanisms of failure in FEA, computing alternating stresses/ strains, pre-stress/strain considerations and more importantly material property data such as S-N curves, mean-correction factors in addition to creep effects, if any.  FEA and Fatigue calculations have considerably improved Reliability in aerospace applications wherein critical components are serviced or replaced after specified service life.  Automotive industry has adopted fatigue as an important consideration to address warranty and reliability challenges.  Importance of Fatigue is getting more attention while addressing Reliability & Warranty Issues.

Need more information? Contact EGS India

What's New in CosmosWorks 2008

With Focus on Design and Not on Tools , CosmosWorks 2008 has set a new Paradigm in Design Validation Solution.

Design Scenarios: Design scenarios have been enhanced for greater usability providing direct cut and paste access to tabular data from programs like MS Excel and Word. Users can now resize the input window and automatically fill in Parameter values using linear, exponential, or uniform data fills. Coordinate system dependent output has been added to the Results Summary.

Force at Any Location: Point forces can simply be applied at any location using reference points. This eliminates manual work and unnecessary geometry modifications, such as surface splitting.

Trend Analysis: Trend Tracker provides data to intuitively evaluate the impact of successive design changes on a base design by allowing users to focus on relative results instead of absolute. The insight provided by this data will allow users to zero in on the best design alternatives in less iteration with more confidence in the value of each feature.

Load/Restraint Advisor: Choosing appropriate loads and restraints may be the most difficult task facing design analysis users at all levels. The Analysis Advisor has condensed the experience of analysis experts into a concise flow chart format to allow designers and novice users to make informed decisions on part interactions. A database of common load and restraint modeling techniques has been added for review allowing customers to capture best practices for their design challenges.

Design Insight Plots: Design Insight plots show the most effective portions of the modeled geometry in carrying the applied load thus allowing users to make informed decisions about feature shape and innovative design alternatives.

Free Body Diagram Plots: Expanding on the popularity of computed free-body forces, COSMOS users can now review the load distribution in their parts and assemblies using intuitive free-body diagrams.

Pressure Vessel Design Study: Pressure vessel design studies help users to combine the effects of multiple independent loading scenarios, such as dead weight, internal pressure, thermal or seismic loading. Users can easily calculate dynamic stresses using SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) method.

NAFEMS Verification Problems in Tutorials: NAFEMS, the international association for the engineering analysis community, has developed a series of benchmarks to verify the quality of analysis results. The results of many of these benchmarks have been included as tutorial problems to allow users to better understand the COSMOS results.

 Many more functionalities have been added to Cosmos FEA for user-friendly design validation and faster product design iterations.

Interested in CosmosWorks? Contact EGS India
Did You Know?

Here is an interesting anecdote on how Theory and Observation go hand-in-hand.  Herr Hiemenz, a doctoral student of Ludwig Prandtl - a reknowned Fluid Mechanics Expert, was experiencing unsteady fluctuations while studying a flow around a cylinder in a channel. Observing the experiment, Theodore von Karman, a graduate assistant of Prandtl, studied the phenomenon and came up with the vortices calculations over a weekend. When the work, which by then had come to be known as the von Karman vortices, was published at a meeting in Paris, Henri Bernard, another famous Fluid Sciences Expert, had mentioned that he had photographed the vortices even earlier and they were un-symmetric. von Karman promptly made quick calculations on the back of an envelope and was on his feet explaining the difference and suggested that the street be called 'Boulevard de Bernard" in Paris. Later, von Karman admitted, in his autobiography, that the inspiration for the study of the phenomenon and subsequent hypothesis came from an ancient 14th Century painting of St. Christopher in Bologna, Italy, carrying Infant Jesus across a water-body, wherein the vortices were depicted around the Saint's feet !! Now, an observation leads an artist to depict a natural phenomenon which goes on to inspire a scientific assistant in putting together the theory that later helps the world solve its fluid engineering problems !!

While receiving the First Prestigious National Medal of Science from President Kennedy, at age 81, von Karman politely shook off the proffered aid, saying, "Mr President, one does not need help going down, only going up."

Recent studies have shown that insects such as bees borrow energy from the vortices that form around their wings during flight. Vortices inherently create drag. Insects can recapture some of this energy and use it to improve speed and maneuverability. Insects rotate their wings before starting the return stroke, and the wings are lifted by the eddies of air created on the downstroke. The high frequency oscillation of insect wings means that many hundreds of vortices are shed every second. However, this leads to a symmetric vortex street pattern. (Souce: Wikipedia)

We remember, with gratitude, von Karman for having helped us, at EGS India, to solve an interesting fluid-induced vibration problem, using Cosmos FloWorks, involving a tall column for a renowned Petro-Chemical customer. The inspiration for this article came from discussions with Dr. Madhu Ganesh, General Manager - Technology Development, ELGI Equipments Limited, Coimbatore, India, specializing in CFD as applied to compressors.

von  Karman  Vortex

Thermax Limited develops Design Process Automation for Chillers using SolidWorks

Cooling and Heating Division of Thermax Limited, has been one of the First Users of SolidWorks since 1998.  By automating the design process using SolidWorks with integrated API functionality, Thermax has shown the way towards rapid product design with drawing release thereby reducing the design cycle time which is bound to reduce the time to market for their Chillers.  Configuration Manager inside SolidWorks has been used in an innovative way with Design Tables and Excel Integration to produce a huge variety of configurations of their design resulting in over 60% saving in time while eliminating errors and re-work.
Thermax  Chiller  Design  Automation

SolidWorks Innvoation Days sees convergence of Engineering Community at Chennai and Coimbatore
A rare opportunity was utilized by Engineers to deliberate on the Theme - Design with Vision during the Innovation Days program.  In addition to new functionalities in SolidWorks 2008 and Cosmos 2008, case studies presented by Wheels India Limited, Chennai, on benefits of Cosmos for Wheel Design and Design Process Automation by Thermax Limited, Pune, using SolidWorks, provided deep insight into how Engineering Organizations can benefit in bringing their products to market faster.
Innovation Day at Coimbatore saw a huge response from the Engineering Community.  Benefits of the usage of SolidWorks was detailed by Penta Auto towards Auotomotive Handling Equipment design and development.  Importance of GD&T for Qualitative Designs using SolidWorks was presented by EGS India.
SolidWorks  Innovation  Day
Interested in SolidWorks? Need Cosmos FEA? Require Solution to Problems? Refer Your friend
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